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DEN GAMLA KULTUREN ATT VALLA KOR

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DEN GAMLA KULTUREN att valla kor kallas för 'fäboddrift' eller fäbodväsen.


Stockholm den 31 Juli 2020


Förr i tiden tog man reda på all mark i skog och i myrar helt enkelt för att djuren behövde äta upp sig under sommaren. Man valla kor och getter och ibland även får. Sommarbete. En fäbodjänta bodde vid en fäbodvall antingen i skogen eller vid ett fjäll. Oftast var en fäbodvall en liten stuga med fähus och kokbodar, de tillhörde oftast en storbonde eller bönderna i en särskild by. Det finns fäbodar långt ned i landet och ända upp till norra Norrland intill fjällen. En fäbodjänta fick valla ända från midsommar långt in till hösten. Samtidigt skulle hon mjölka korna och de djur som hörde till gården. Det gjordes ostar av korna och getterna. Även smör. De var lättare att ta tillvara och som kunde bevaras till vintern. Vem har inte sett de gamla jordkällare som finns lite överallt. Det är en kvarleva från den tiden. Fäbodar och dess liv går långt tillbaka ända till medeltiden. Dess förflyttningar av boskap mellan olika betesmarker. Det förhindrade att skogen hölls tillbaka och bildade istället ängar med olika blomster. Kospill gjorde att olika fauna trivdes på olika ställen. Så är det än idag. Det kallas för Naturområden, skyddade sådana för att spara för framtiden. Sen var kospill dyr vara och den samlade man upp för att användas på storbondens åkrar.


Självklart frodades fäbodskulturen som handlar om matkonsten, traditioner och framförallt vidskepelse med inslag av musik. Valthornet som användes flitigt hördes över berg och i hela fjällvärlden. Hon kallade djuren till sig. I Sverige fanns det fäbodar i Dalarna, Härjedalen och Värmland, Ångermanland och Norrbotten. Fäbodgränsen visar en kulturgräns som delar Sverige. Tex. Säter och Sätra kommer från Norge. Fäbodriften har långa anor, men blev mindre när jordbruket effektiviseradas och skogen blev värdefull. Bastbergets fäbodvall i Gagnefs kommun under 1800-talet var Skandinaviens största hushåll med nära 600 djur. Här har fäbodsdrifts funnits i över 400 år. Idag finns ungefär 150 gårdar kvar fördelade på fem fäbod´byar.


Nyvallens naturreservat finns i Jämtlands län. Kanske man borde besöka det stället. En skröna berättades att det var ju oftast flickor som var 'fäbodstinta' och dessa drog ju till sig traktens unga män. För att råda bot på detta placerade man en väldans gammal dam som fick sitta i fäboden och valla fäbodsstintan. Det berättas också att en blomsterkrans hängdes upp vid dörren varje fredag och då skulle det alltid vara färska blommor i den kransen. Och när nattens skuggor närmade sig, hände ofta att fäbodstintan gick ut och ropade in djuren med vallhorn eller så 'kulade' hon högt och ljudligt. Det kallas för kulning. Så här i vår moderna tid så minns dom riktigt gamla kvinnor och män hur det kunde låta uti skog och mark på den tiden. Kanske det också var en trygghet. Ingen var ensam. Man levde tillsammans. Det fanns ju mat både mjölk, ost och smör. Samt att NÄRHETEN till djuren som fick en särställning. Gå ut en promenad i skogen så kommer du att höra att fåglarna i skogen talar om att 'nu kommer det någon gående på vägen'. Djurens värld är skogen. De hör allt och talar om för dom andra djuren allt vad som händer. Det du och jag inte känner till det vet och känner djuren. Tänk på det när du är ute. Djuren följer dig. Fast du inte ser det.


Gloriaskatten önskar Dig kära läsare en fortsatt fin och solig sensommar. Glöm inte bort kaffekorgen. Tror minsann det är en kvarleva av fäbodslivet. Hur det var förr.


Forts. följer om fäbodarna. Ni vet väl att våra svenska folkdräkter var sydda för hand. All dekoration och färg har sin betydelse i olika län. Det gjorde nog den gamla damen vid fäbodvallarna. Satt och broderade på sin finaste skjorta. Och oftast var det blommor som man broderade av.



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